While there are no absolute rules, there are some common practices for numbering a document that will be physically printed.

1) Position of odd and even page numbering

Start the numbering on a right-hand page so odd numbers (1,3,5…) always fall on the right-hand page of a spread and even numbers (2,4,6…) are always on the left.

2) Not numbering the Cover and front pages

The Cover and some initial content such as a Forward, Dedication and Copyright page appear before the main content. The Cover (and Back Cover) isn’t numbered and other initial pages are traditionally labelled with small Roman numerals (i, ii, ii, iv…) or not at all.

3) Blank pages don’t need numbers

Sometimes blank pages are added in the main content of a document for design purposes, such as allowing a section to start on a right-hand page. These pages are still in the numbering sequence but the number isn’t printed. For example, page 11 and page 13 have written content but page 12 in the middle of them is left blank. Page 12 is still counted but the page number isn’t printed. Blank pages may be added at the end of a document to make up the page count. All printed documents need to have a page count divisible by four because documents are created by folding paper in half to create 4 pages.

4) Position of page numbers

Avoid placing page numbers on the inside margin of a page, or too close to the outer edge (where they might get trimmed off). Usually page numbers are placed in the bottom right and bottom left of a spread. For design purposes they could also be centred at the top or bottom of a page, placed in the top right and left corner or centred on the outer left and right sides. Consider your audience and what sort of document you are producing when placing your page numbers. If your document is large and your audience will need to navigate back and forth through the document to find specific information make your page numbering easy to read and find.

If you have any page numbering questions, feel free to get in touch.

It’s that time of year again when organisations start to think about their annual reports. It’s a busy time for us graphic designers as we embrace the challenge of making these documents look enticing and easy to read.

What is an annual report ?

“The report on an incorporated company’s affairs that must be sent to shareholders after the end of the financial year. Such reports include an audited statement of the company’s affairs as well as reports from the management of the company.”

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

While an annual report fulfils a company’s legal obligations and is a repository of accurate financial information for shareholders and stakeholders it can also be used as a marketing tool. By highlighting past performance, presenting future direction and aspirations as well as demonstrating brand values it can be a valuable document for potential investors or a wider audience (such as donators to a non-profit organisation).

Good design can make a report clear, inviting and easy to read with data presented in a way that’s easy to understand. A strong concept can help tell a story and humanise an organisation with case studies and stories about their people and achievements.

Strategic considerations need to be thought through before jumping straight to design.

  • Purpose: strictly regulatory/regulatory and marketing
  • Audience: stakeholders/wider scope could include general public, potential investors etc.
  • Delivery: online/printed
  • Design approach: utilitarian simplicity/conceptual story-based

Pages from an Annual Report

Image: Queen Elizabeth II Trust Annual Report 2019, Pogo Design

Annual report delivery

More recently I’ve noticed a shift away from annual reports being part glossy promotional brochure and part regulatory document for a wider audience, towards a more utilitarian report focused on shareholders and stakeholders with a minimal print run and published online as a PDF. This shift could reflect a wider move towards digital communications and away from traditional off-set printing.

Benefits of a digitally published (PDF) annual report include:

  • Time
    • A PDF file published on a company’s website takes minutes to upload
    • A print run of an offset printed document can take days
  • Costs
    • Supporting a digitally published PDF with a smaller number of digitally printed hard copies can be significantly cheaper than offset printing a large run of reports
    • Waste associated with excess out-of-date physical copies is avoided
  • Links to further information can be contained in the PDF document or sign-posted on the company’s webpage

Benefits of a printed annual report include:

  • Impact
    • A tangible object can be more visually and physically appealing
    • Easier to read
    • Implies quality through paper choice and print finishing
  • Audience appropriateness
    • Hard copies are preferable for some audiences
    • Can be provided as part of a marketing package

Some annual reports are published as a microsite, with visuals and audio-visual content. One of my clients has moved back from a web microsite to a combination of a PDF hosted on their website with a small number of digitally printed hard copies.

The cost benefits of producing online content was offset by the costs associated with building a new website and needing to significantly change it each year – hence the move back to PDF and a few hard copies.

Pages from Wellington Water Annual Report

Image: Wellington Water Annual Report 2019, Pogo Design

Design – how to make it look great!

An annual report can be a company’s flagship document so it’s important that it represents the company’s branding at its best. Design considerations include:

  • An enticing cover
  • Easy to read content, employ lots of white space – less is more
  • Easy to navigate content with section styles, colour coding etc
  • Strong photos and images
  • Employee or customer quotes
  • Infographics, icons, tables, charts, maps and diagrams
  • Bold typographic highlight statistics
  • Snackable content with a clear heading hierarchy and pull out sections
  • Mandatory requirements like web address
  • Auditor’s reports may have to remain in the format they are provided
  • Respecting the brand guidelines
  • Knowing the production/delivery method. Online, printed and digital documents have different technical requirements.

Image: Xero Annual Report winner of Best Design Awards 2018 designed by Studio A-Z

Along with the clever design you’ll need some creative ideas to put some flesh on the report’s bones. These might include:

  • Highlighting people (employees, recipients or customers)
  • Snapshot/day in the life/moments in time
  • Past/future facts and figures
  • Story of why/highlight of values
  • Hero photos, graphics or illustrations
  • Multiples of photos/images to create impact
  • Typography
  • Focus on data with numbers or infographics
  • Timeline device
  • Environmental or social focus

Image: Warehouse annual Report from Behance

If you have any annual report questions, feel free to get in touch.

Large format display sizes compared to a human silhouette

Sometimes bigger actually is better. Many occassions, like trade shows, construction projects or events, may require larger format displays to be designed.

These tend to be less standardised that the ‘A’ paper size system and may differ slightly from each supplier. Pull-up banners and flags can vary so it’s important for you, or your designer, to get the correct specifications from the signage company, printer or supplier to ensure the artwork is set up to their particular sizes and requirements.

To imagine how large a pull-up banner or flag would be in the real world I’ve used common sized items in this visual as a starting point.

Large format display sizes compared to a human silhouette

Coreflute, and other signage materials, come in standard sheet sizes. Unless you need a specific size, working with standard sheet sizes (such as planning to use a half or quarter sheet) will reduce wastage and can be more cost effective.

While coreflute is light and inexpensive it has a limited shelf life so is ideal for short-term use. For signage and displays that need to be durable and last longer term Aluminium Composite Panel (ACM) is popular and can be digitally printed and cut down to standard sizes and shapes.

For help visualising standard ‘A’ paper and poster sizes check out my ‘A’ what? blog.

Standard poster sizes in relation to a person's silhouette

Most of us are familiar with an A4 sheet of paper, but it can be harder visualising how large an A1 poster will look or how an A6 postcard might fit into your hand.

Here’s a handy collection of all the ‘A’ paper sizes together measured in mm, as well as a standard business card.

Standard paper sizes A6 to A0

And just to give it some scale – here are A3 to AO posters next to a silhouette (in this case me!).

Standard poster sizes in relation to a person's silhouette

For more info check out my blog on visualising even larger format displays here.